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The Analysis of the Strategic Integration of Facilities Management Essay Sample

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Preface

The modern day project construction and development has been greatly acknowledged, and this is precisely due to the integration of facility management. The integration of strategic facility management resulted into a better and more proactive service delivery from the management to the stakeholders. However, research into the effectiveness of modern day construction and development due to integration of facility management is not widespread.

This is the core reasons why no consensus has been achieved concerning the extent of effectiveness of the modern day construction and development. Therefore, the inadequate research is what motivated this research study. This dissertation contains six chapters. The first is the introduction chapter characterized by the statement of the problem, the purpose, aims and the objectives of the study. Further constituents of the chapter are the underlying hypothesis, the scope, the limitation of the study, the assumptions of the study and the definition of terms. The second chapter is the literature review while the third chapter explains the conceptual framework and the research methodology the researcher used. The fourth chapter is a data analysis and discussion chapter succeeded by a recommendation and conclusion. The research study seeks to explore the effective ways by which Building Information Management models influence the rate of facility development and management. By successfully studying this, the researcher will be able to renew the existing knowledge and also form a basis of literature reviews for the studies to follow.

While completing this dissertation, the most significant problem entailed the confidentiality issues. There was a need to ensure privacy of the research respondents. To do this, the researcher withheld the names of the participants from possible third parties.

I would like to thank all those who helped me complete this dissertation. Primarily, it was my professor who, through continued and persistent critical feedbacks, helped me to learn much on dissertation process. Additionally, I would like to thank my family and friends for the support and encouragement they offered me.

The dissertation took a period of one month to complete. However, much of the time was consumed in the process of collecting data. This process took two weeks.

Abstract

This particular research study aims at exploring the effective ways by which Building Information Management models influence the rate of facility development and management. To answer this question, the researcher a qualitative research study. The researcher further sampled 20 research respondents, but 7 of the respondents did not resubmit the questionnaires. Therefore, there were 13 questionnaires available for data analysis. To analyze the data, the researcher applied the use of the SPSS software. It was identified that the facility management, as it has been integrated in the modern day construction and development of projects, is extremely effective. The researcher recommends that further research be conducted in order to determine why facility management has not been used to improve the completion stage of a project.

Chapter 1: Introduction

Facility management is one of the important elements that are considered to ensure that the organizational activities in a property management firm are running smoothly. This strategy is particularly important in residential and the property development at large. In the real world, facility management activities fall under the responsibilities of a facility manager. This causes frequent lapse in the reactive modes that respond to clients’ requests, orders, regulations, demands and the deadlines of the organization. Facility managers understand that they need to be more proactive and possess some strategic planning ideals in order to maximize the facilities effectiveness.

Strategic facility planning and Building information management models are combinations of strategies that can result into better and more proactive service delivery from the management to the stakeholders if they are well implemented. The time required for carrying out planning and implementation can be enough to avoid flaws, delays, customer dissatisfaction and disappointments. This allows facilities to plan for the information system implementation and deliver quick and smooth services.

Since most managers are unfamiliar with the information facility management systems available, the best way to achieve it is through planning and then acquiring the necessary training and planning. While different organizations seek to become more competitive in the market by providing the best facilities and services, change in technology is an indisputable option.

For a long period, the building and engineering environment has been the main beneficiary of technological inventions. Following the rise in the importance of using the Building Information Management model (BIM) in the construction profession, there is a need to establish the impact and the problems associated with it (McNell 2004). By sharing the information between the designers, surveyors, architects, and consulting engineers, the BIM has brought additional discipline specific knowledge to a single model. This means that there is a significant reduction in the loss of information, which results to a more efficient and accurate construction process and improvement in the maintenance and repair of buildings.

1.1 Statement of the Problem

How effective do Building Information Management models influence the rate of facility development and management?

As technology continues to evolve and develop, the human culture is forced to evolve or run a risk of remaining behind. With the development of technology like BIM, the roles and responsibilities of designers and construction managers have been forced to shift. BIM entails a series of cost management activities than what was the case in the yesteryears. Not only that the BIM has influenced the cost as a management function but also influenced the efficiency in which the activities are run.

1.2 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of the various strategies adopted by facility managers by presenting an empirical facility management strategy.

1.3 Aims

  • To provide a critical analysis/or to critically analyze the role and importance of BIM in modern Facilities Management/Managers in property development.

  • To Optimize the Role of Facilities Management (FM) for Sustainable Property Development

  • To explore and annex  the role of FM and BIM  in property development

  • To highlight and discuss the importance of integrating FM in the wider property development life cycle

  • To establish the critical success factors needed to optimize the integration of facilities management (FM) into the full property development framework.

  • To explore the rationale for incorporating FM into property development from inception to completion of a property development project

1.4 Objectives

1.5 Hypothesis

Ho. The presence of BIM in facility management does not significantly affect the rate of property development.

Ho. There is no significant advantage of having an integrated FM in the property development life cycle

Ho. The critical success factors do not positively optimize the integration of facility management to a full property development framework.

Ho. Incorporating facility management does not significantly develop the inception and completion of property development project.

1.6 Scope

This research focuses on the challenges involved in integrating building construction and facility management and how these effects translate to the whole aspect of property management.

1.7 Limitations of the Study

The main limitations likely to be encountered in conducting the research are time limit and financial resources. The budget for this research might pose a slight challenge due to lack of correct estimation of research materials. Financial resources are likely to be a major limitation by the fact that the researcher will have to finance on travelling and generating research materials such as the questionnaires. All these activities require finances that are unlikely to be available in adequacy at the time of research. To overcome this challenge, proper budgeting techniques will be employed.

The time aspect in conducting the research is likely to be another challenge. Therefore, the institution involved requires the study to be completed within the academic period provided. This proves a limitation in time required for a comprehensive research for this study. Proper time management, use of quick responses like direct interviews and exclusion of unnecessary activities will enable the researcher to timely complete the study.

1.8 Assumptions of the Study

This study was based on the following assumptions:

  i.            All the respondents will give genuine information to the questionnaires.

 ii.            The business structures of the enterprises interviewed are the same as those of others of the same caliber in other towns and cities.

 iii.            Most managers will be co-operative and ready to respond to the Questionnaires given

1.9 Definition of Terms

BIM - a building information management model applied in construction and facility management

CAD - computer aided designing tools applied in designing in two dimensions

CAFM - computer applied Facility management

AutoCAD - the leading 2D and 3D CAD software for designing, drafting, modeling and architectural drawing

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Building Information Management (BIM)

Building information management is a digital representation of the physical function characteristics of a single building. For the last decade, Building information management (BIM) and model based engineering has emerged as the most active research area related to construction informalities. The industrial justification behind this rising trend and the use of BIMs and model based engineering can be said to be an inadequate interoperability in the industry. In the construction industry, commercial relationships have temporarily managed in bringing connecting partners who have no history of working together. This barrier to effective communication has created barriers to effective information sharing among stakeholders. Today, BIM are seen as the main facilitators of interoperation ability, integration, collaboration and process automation in the construction industry.

2.2 Bridging the Gap between Building Information Management and Facility Management

Facility managers continuously face the challenge of improving and standardizing the quality of information they have on their disposal, both on meeting their daily operational needs and providing the management with reliable data for organized management and planning. This emerging technology of BIM is supposed to provide a new level of functionality for building management and physical assets in them. Facility and asset management have primarily relied on data-centric application for their tasks in informational support. According to Newton and Randall (2004), Graphics capability in CAFM application has primarily focused on space management. Rework has often been required to make CAD files delivery from project construction documents useful in facility management.

BIM provide a unified digital repository to all building components and a full 3D dimensional model that is capable of displaying views and clarity that typically eludes users who are bot schooled in interpreting 2D drawings for buildings. This application has the capability to attach an infinite range of data components to both models, either within the internal database of the application such Oracle which creates potential data repository that helps in documentation. For instance, BIM space component has been supplemented to track information like room number, calculation of area, reference URLs among several other attributes (Caldas&Soibelman 2003). As a relatively new technology, the capabilities of BIM have not been fully utilized in commercial FM system.

However, Building Information Management is a complex application that is not fully suited to a casual user. More complex savvy and technological organizations may have the resources to ensure full employment of BIM specialists in the maintenance of BIM models in the facilities.

2.3 Using BIM for facility management

In 2005, an Australian research center for innovation in construction embarked on Sydney Opera House (SOH) to identify Facility Management industry in the best way. Along the researching benchmarking and procurement, the research firm also investigated the digital modeling in BIM. Lack of consistent data in a single source has become a continuous issue to facility management, an issue that the project intends to sole (Newton & Randall 2004). Preliminary research has suggested that the 3D digital management model (SOH) will save improving the operation activities in the facility through consistent, current and accurate data that enable speedy and more effective management. For instance, Sydney Opera House was a large and very complex structure that houses equipment and activities which are equally complex. Started in 1958, the original document was a hardcopy drawing and the documentation did not actually describe the building that was ultimately completed in 1973. The final and completed building varied from the original architect drawing, but unfortunately, there were no definitive set of plans that were not incorporated in the ensued changes.

2.4 Building a BIM Data Model

The SOH developed this building information model for use in full cycle management of the facility. The creation and development process did more than just recording the physical structure of the building. It also incorporates larger amounts of services, maintenance and the cost of information (Fischer& Kunz 2004). The model has all information in regards to a building such as lifts, fire systems, ventilations and most importantly, the relationship between them in a single repository. The model was divided into a master model and a logical discipline specific sub model that takes into consideration the activities of mechanical, electrical and architectural structures. The master model supports different spatial hierarchies: functional zones, location zones, rooms and places to plan the interior spaces for a multiple purposes. The model objects that have asset maintenance requirements are populated with data fields such as name, location, schedule and the maintenance task. The general data attributes for operation and maintenance are also applied to track the general appearance, tidiness and cleanliness of all functional spaces.

2.5 Concepts of Building Information Management

The BIM is a fairly new term that was coined by Autodesk in 2002 to describe the innovative approach to building constructions and designs (Rundell& Stowe 2005). This idea itself is not new in the construction industry as the three dimensional capabilities of BIM have been a dream of the entire construction industry through the use of technology. For example, three dimensional programs like Graphisoft’sArchiCAD have existed for over two decades. However, the BIM has been made a representation of a building in an integrated database of coordinated, internally consistent and computable information in construction and design. In addition, the project information provided in the model can be of material quantity, dates of installation, responsibilities of subcontracting and the available alternative materials.

In the BIM model, the most important feature is the three dimensional capability which serves as a major benefit of this model. This is because it has no training of imagination or before the experience and is necessary to visualize from different lines and dimensions. Instead, the whole structure and various other components  like the hallways, rooms, exits and other facilities that can be viewed and also examined because elements of the BIM serves as the actual simulation of the building components(McNell 2004).

A study performed by Newton, Randall  (2004) revealed that the previous version of a paper based presentation demanded about 40% of the total time spent at project meetings  when trying to describe ‘who’, ‘how’, ‘where’, ‘when’ and the ‘what’ of the project. 20% of the time was used in explaining the rationale of the decision made while 30% was spent on evaluating the goals to be sure of the project requirements are met (Mokbel&Salaza 2004). The remaining 10% of time was spent on the decision making phase where predictive questions like ‘what will happen if we do this or that?’ are asked and the solutions sought. By the use of the 3D model, there has been a better information delivery which combines with schedules and budgeted information so as to end having the sorts of countless papers and increase the time for productive thinking by 50%. An additional benefit is the alternative changes and adjustments that could be discussed at the project meeting without revising the topic upon another meeting.

The benefit of the 3D to the construction industry consists in the fact that concepts and ideas are presented with no need of having a prior construction experience or deep understanding on how the building components are brought together. The main issue has always been the manner in which proposals and ideas can be conceptualized so that another person can easily visualize and understand it. The BIM is capable of graphically displaying a structure and all its sections and components thereby benefiting both the persons with the idea and the person receiving it.

In addition, BIM assists the designed in the process of designing. It does not only have a clear communication but also maintains the intents of the design, streamlining of the quality control and making higher analytical tools more accessible (Fischer& Kunz 2004). Nevertheless, tasks such as drafting, coordinated view, document generation, creation of schedule and automation of the model are also involved (McNell 2004). Finally, the computer power has been harnessed to enhance the design process other that mimicking the drafting; the BIM can transfer downstream models to avoid time wastage.

Other research studies that have focused on BIM and design of building constructions point the benefits of BIM as not limited to simple visualization and presentation of information. BIM can assist International Construction in communication of ideas all round the world that happens in a less concern to language barriers. One application of BIM has been the implementation of address change orders which checks disputes and ideological conflicts (Caldas&Soibelman 2003). This study established that the 3D parametric BIM can impact productivity and enhance the design process coordination. Others addressed the impact of BIM as in the construction schedule of a project in such a way that the potential problems can be realized in their early stages of the process. Despite all these advantages and possible applications of BIM, it has not been possible to assume completeness. The BIM has had continued to be used to recognize further and evaluate the shortcomings available. Presently, the BIM has managed to assimilate building information and components such as the mechanical, plumbing, and electrical and still remained fully implemented.

2.6 Cost Estimation

BIM as a model has enabled material and assembly quantities to be extracted and then fed directly to the database. Traditionally, producing a cost estimate could have taken the builder two or more weeks (McNell 2004). Meanwhile, the design work could continue, and the estimate could finally be given by the architect whose accuracy could not be accurately rendered. The slow rate of providing information in the traditional means delayed the decision making process. The design could be too expensive, and the building would have to be redesigned.

The BIM shortened the time involved in cost estimation and review in two to three days, which radically increased the accuracy, speed and the frequency of estimations. The cost estimates that required a period of two to four weeks to estimate can now be made in a matter of minutes. It is even stipulated that in such a setup, the BIM and cost feedbacks can be used as a guide design rather than having to fix with engineering where reduction cost would compromise the design.

2.7 Parametric Modeling

This is a fundamental component of the BIM that applies the parametric engine to coordinate automatic changes and revisions across the project deliverables. However, according to Rundell and Stowe (2005), the parametric modeling is not an entirely new concept. The mechanical engineering and manufacturing industry has used Pro/Engineer as a software program with parametric models to design mechanical components for four decades. Pro/Engineer has a 3D ability to provide a preview of a product from all angles.

Parametric model in BIM is somewhat the same as Microsoft Excel where a change in one cell can be automatically reflected on the entire worksheet without obligating the user to change manually the related cells. BIM uses a similar concept where drawings are automatically updated with all applicable changes (McNell 2004). A two dimensional program such as CAD employs the use of coordinate-based geometric models in arranging the information but do not automatically change in the files or the software. On the other hand, BIM programs use partially constrained models that create networks in building relationships between the elements hence the difference between the CAD and BIM.

Parametric modeling is an automated process that makes use of the building element network to keep track of all the changes. In case of any modification, the parametric change engines determine the coordinates which are required by other elements to update and make the changes (Bethune 2005). For instance, if one section of the drawing is altered or changed, the whole drawing is automatically updated to reflect the deviations without having the designer to apply manual changes in every part of the drawing. Actually, CAD has proved to be more beneficial although it has not fully reaped the benefits of technological advancement as it places the engineer in front of a computer instead of the drafting table. Furthermore, the BIM has the capacity to integrate all components of a building drawing such as recognizing the wall sections that have an enclosed structure.

2.8 Autodesk Revit

Revit was introduced in the market in 1997 by Revit Software but then acquired by Autodesk in 2002. This program is similar to CAD on how the walls and the building components are structured. It is very essential to engineers and architects, especially on 3D modeling. Parametric facility in Revit provides the designer with the ability to engineers and construction professionals to transform the matter and the building design, construction and operation over the structure’s life cycle (Mokbel&Salaza 2004).

An architect works on a real world component such as windows, walls and doors. With AutoCAD, the process of drawing windows, walls and doors requires a number of steps. A multiple line has to be drawn to represent a window. The shortened method of doing this would be to make a block with a combination of lines and colors that are saved in the software such as windows. In this case, the window locks can be accessed later in the process of drawing and placed in its assigned location (Bethune 2005). Changes to the drawing can then be made manually to reflect the place of the window on the wall. In Revit, the parametric feature can do this automatically, and the architects can ensure that all drawings are viewed consistently. It also enables all evaluators to coordinate and understand the model itself, as well as the technocrats involved in the actual construction.

Revit is able to display various aspects and components of drawing in a building. The following are some examples.

Building systems

Excavation

Footings and tiers

Foundation slabs, walls and columns

Interior basement

superstructure

exterior closure

interior construction

furnishing

 

Figure 1: The first tier building systems

The first tier system can be organized into subsections like column, slabs, and stairs found in a superstructure building as shown in the figure

Superstructure

Furnishings

Columns

Furniture

Floor slabs

Chairs

Stairs

Desks

 

Equipment

 

lighting

Exterior closure

Interior construction

Windows

 Partitions

Roofs

Doors

Exterior walls

Assembly code

Specifications

Assembly description

Assembly code

Cost

Assembly descriptions

Description

Cost

Manufacturer

Description

URL

 

Type mark

Figure 2: Second tier building systems

In addition to building components, the site and elevations can be adjusted and integrated into the construction model in order to display the real world information about the building and where and how the project site is developed. An observable difficulty is particularly on setting a comparable scale in a way that CAD drawings can be used without having to redevelop the drawing or having difficulties to set the upper scale. As mentioned in the BIM, Revit is capable of producing 2D floor plans and section views, schedules and ceiling plans.

Figure 3: Floor plan

Figure 4: A section of the floor plan

Autodesk Revit building specifically focuses on the components of the building; the software does not contain some structural components like metals and timber beams or columns. Autodesk Revit structure in 3D package provides a fully integrated analytical and physical model for structural engineers, analysts, and designers. Autodesk building system has been used as long standing software, which is often an AutoCAD based software product for construction and design documentation.

2.9 Building Operation and Maintenance

In a social set up, the purpose of a building is to provide an environment that people can work, lay and learn. In order to facilitate these objectives, facility management is concerned with the life safety and the energy efficiency of the building in order to ensure a health and comfort of the dwellers. The primary focus of Life safety generally defined as municipal building codes focus on fire safety. Energy efficiency is not defined in this way due to having a good part of it being relatively ambiguous (Fischer & Kunz 2004). The perpetual issue of management is concerned with the cost of supply and services and not with the standards since there are no laws that are set for such limits. However, in order to reduce the rate of energy consumption, especially in lighting and heating, the designers have proposed several initiatives that will impact on the cost and environment.

According to the US department of Energy, O&M program can contribute to some improvement in the working conditions, higher levels of profitability and reduction in the cost of energy. In creating an effective O & M program, the department of energy recommends the following procedures to be observed.

  • Ensure operational procedures are up to date, and all manuals are available.

  • Obtain updated documentations on building systems including the drawings.

  • Implement preventive maintenance program that is complete with maintenance schedules and records performance with all building equipment and systems.

  • Develop a well-trained maintenance staff and provide professional development and training for every staff member.

  • Monitor programs and tracks of documents building systems performance to diagnose and identify problems and also track the effectiveness of the Operation&Management program.

However, the areas of most concern are heating and electrical as they are more prone to hazards, and thus there is a need for routine maintenance. Consistency of building component such as lighting fixture in social buildings requires a similarity and consistency in the system. The reason for this is that some manufacturers say that lighting fixtures may go bankrupt and become impossible in case replacement is required.

2.10 Fire Safety

This is another topic of interest and compliance with the building and constructions codes of ethics. There is an inherent obligation in providing a safe dwelling or business environment. In addition, there are certain conditions that need to be met in terms of fire safety. Fire safety does not simply comprise of the ability of the building to perform in case of fire, but more passive and active measures are needed for exit (Newton & Randall 2004). Passive measures are walls, doors, exits, corridors, building materials and emergency lights. Active measures in a building are actions taken to combat fire. Such actions include sprinklers, fire extinguishers and alarm systems. In such a case, the codes of compliance are important; otherwise the certificate of occupation can never be authorized.

Fire protection and safety measures of WPI comprise of fire extinguishers, illuminating fire exit signs and sprinkler systems. There are different categories of fire extinguishers, and they are categorized in terms of fire hazards. Class A fire extinguishers deal with fires caused by papers, woods and fabric materials. Class B is caused by flammable liquids like oil and gasoline. Class C extinguishers are used on burning electrical equipment, and as for class D, it is applied on combustible materials. The last level, class K extinguishers are for kitchen grease fires.

According to Mokbel and Salaza (2004), this information provides building management with quality assurance for Interactive Qualifying Projects. E-buildings is the new concept which provides information system for facilities management. IQP developed a 3D model of buildings with Autodesk Revit in order to explore the fire safety. It highlighted the manual record keeping and inspection process conducted for plant service. In this study, it was found that traditional management of information was simple at its best. Plant services make use of contractors to map and inspect safety equipment to determine whether it is compliant with the codes.

However, there is no all compassing location that maps to display the entire safety equipment system. Due to the fact that the maps are paper based, they are easy to update, and changes made on the map require that new sets of the document are produced. According to Halilaj, Sibora and Mills (2006), WPI enables the integration of the three dimensional parametric models with a geographical information system in a 3D parametric model on management and educational facilities planning.

2.11 Facility Management During and After Property Development

Living in residential estates has now become a lifestyle trend among most urban professionals in the world. As opposed to land property, residential are managed to regulate all amenities provided by the developers. One of the reasons why many people now prefer to live in residential high rise is the facilities provided just in the vicinity of the housing area. The residents pay a considerable fee to be provided with the facilities while facility management organizations are responsible for managing the facility.

Focusing on residential high rise management, the life cycle of management can be categorized into three major periods: before the establishment of facility management, during the process of management and after the completion of the management life cycle.

The first two periods are not so important in this study, and during these periods, the management is naturally temporary, and the residents do not have a say over the management of their own property. In managing a residential high-rise, the facility manager and the residents must achieve a consensus on all their management related matters. This ensures that a level of effective management contributes towards sustainable development. According to Halilaj, Sibora and Mills (2006), there is a pattern of management gaps between the facility managers and the resident during the initial stages of property development. There are several key issues that may result to management gaps.

Most of the high rise residential properties differ to significant extent to other forms of properties. The development of the housing units from one particular lot is the most important characteristic that differentiates residential properties from other landed properties. Other than this difference, the uniqueness of the high-rise residential can be seen by the management of the property after being occupied. At this juncture, the concept of facility management arises where every single unit has to be managed together with their occupants through the facility management mechanism. For houses on sale, there are various backgrounds and ethics that the buyer takes into consideration; this results to the aspect of managing the housing scheme so as to conduct the process systematically.

The aspect of facility management entails property management activities and maintenance of high-rise residential schemes. Basically, the facility management board is responsible for everything regarding the maintenance and management of the building. Before the residential property is put under the responsibility of the board, the efficiency of facility management has to be vetted by the residents.

In relation to facility management and development, the most essential element that needs to be put into consideration is the money value, which is a major contributor of the effectiveness of the housing scheme. The reason for this is to allow owners to invest enough money in the payment of maintenance. Thus, the equilibrium between the investment value and the quality of the facility management has to be aligned in the order of complement of the value of money. In the concept of facility maintenance, this equilibrium called the acceptable standards by the agreement involving the parties and the quality of work.

2.12 Effectiveness Measurement of Facility Management

Measurement of the effectiveness in relation to this concept is evaluated to know the objectives of facility management to high-rise residential property. According to McGeorge, Zou&Palmer (2013), the fundamentals required to determine is often based on the foreseeing of the main goals of the whole process. Principally, a good objective has to be measurable, specific, achievable, and reasonable; it should be gained in a reasonable time frame. The objectives of housing management have to take into consideration the welfare of the residents and their satisfaction. This goes parallel with the principle of facility management to residential clients. To some extent, the idea appears to work successfully after the housing schemes are granted property development certifications.

2.13 Importance of Integration of Facilities Management and Bim in Property Management

A successfully implemented plan is able to integrate all the functional levels of property management. BIM is the best platform for implementation and provision of a structure good enough to communicate with the system. Through the integration of program controls, information and communication, the system will be able to make business decisions with the right information and manage the assets from a centralized location. BIM as a tool for project management is no limited to the construction industry, but rather, any company can adopt its strategies and use it as a strategic management tool.

Integrating the Building Information Management models and the business strategies, the future of the Building information technology is guaranteed. BIM is the umbrella under which the network of information can be communicated as it captures multiple dimensions of projects and programs. In addition, it can integrate all information regarding all the stakeholders which makes the BIM the future strategy required for implementing business information and management models.

2.14 Challenges of Successful Implementation of Facilities Management Strategies

Despite having building information management being the best option to develop and manage property and building, there are various challenges faced. In contemplating the mix of support services to include in facility management, the BIM has to take into consideration the cost factors.

In selecting the choice of approach to include in provision, there should be a clear evaluation of costs between the property and the outsourced service provision. This assessment is done to determine whether the investment in this service is workable or not (McGeorge& Palmer 2013). The organization should identify all costs both direct and indirect and make a clear report of their assessment. Most of these management information systems have very high costs either fixed or variable if they are not well utilized.

Therefore, whatever the arrangement selected, the technology has to play a major role in the delivery of a reliable management information system. It is through accessibility and availability of information that most of the solutions of the control issues are achieved. In doing so, there is value addition in the management of information and resultant delivery of services.

2.15 Conclusion

If the buildings and other facilities are not well managed, they have a negative impact on facility management. Conversely, buildings and facilities have the possibility to enhance performance by contributing to the provision of the optimal work in a business environment. There is no universally acceptable approach to the process of facility management. Several organization can have the same sector but with different requirements, which may call for adjustment of the systems in order to meet the needs of their clients. According to Halilaj, Sibora and Mills (2006), understanding the needs is the main objective of facility management measured in terms of providing the best value. Once the facility management establishes the strategies to adopt in meeting those needs, BIM becomes a vital component in meeting the requirements of property developers.

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

3.1 Conceptual Framework

This was used by the researcher to set the conceptual framework of the dissertation. The first section of the conceptual framework advances the conceptual theoretical frameworks that the researcher settled on while providing the rationale or the justification of choosing the said frameworks. To be specific, this section of the research study is aimed at evaluating the potential applications of the research approaches ranging from discursive to institutional approaches. The very first option available to the researcher was to employ one of the available approaches. However, through the application of one of the approaches to the exclusion of the other approaches, there was an imminent risk that the dissertation would reproduce the gaps within, as well as deficiencies of the existing research on the topic under study. The second option that was available to the researcher was to combine all of the available research approaches. If the researcher opted this course of action, it follows that the critically fundamental question regarding the manner in which to integrate these approaches within a coherent analytical framework would emerge. A further option available to the researcher was seeking a new conceptual theoretical framework, which possessed such a capacity. The central and the chief argument of the conceptual framework is that the coxian approach provides the much necessary framework. Following an intensive review of the literatures that had adopted a similar approach, the chapter additionally introduced the integral features of the coxian historicism and then outlined the three-staged coxian methods of historical structures. The researcher came to a conclusion that the coxian historicism usually possesses the potential to address the main gaps, as well as the fundamental deficiencies that exist in the current research on the topic under study. Additionally, the researcher concluded that there is the capacity to provide a coherent conceptual framework for studying the Strategic Integration of Facilities Management in Modern Construction and Sustainable Property Development. The main research question is the extent to which the Strategic Integration of Facilities Management in Modern Construction and Sustainable Property Development is effective. In this regard, the theoretical point of departure is the Facilities Management in Modern Construction and Sustainable Property Development. The first is the micro-level analysis of the Facilities Management in Modern Construction and Sustainable Property Development and the outputs of the same.

3.2 Research design

This particular chapter seeks to describe the research design, in addition to the precise methodology which the researcher adopted in an effort towards examining how effective is the Strategic Integration of Facilities Management in Modern Construction and Sustainable Property Development is. The main aim of this chapter is to describe the methodologies that the researcher reemployed and the application of those methodologies. The chapter is presented in five essential sections. The first section involves a discussion of the methodology that the researcher used in the study and why he settled on suing that methodology. The second section in the chapter profiles the participants in the study and the selection criteria that the researcher used. The third section involved providing an overview of the process used by the researcher in collecting data to be used in the study. This section was then preceded by outlining the timelines for completing each stage involved in the research, the problems and the limitations that the researcher experienced.

The research study was a qualitative study and, to be precise, an interpretative form of a qualitative research study. The researcher focused on both the changes and the outcomes in order to explore the extent of effectiveness of the Strategic Integration of Facilities Management in Modern Construction and Sustainable Property Development. The researcher anticipated that the data yielded would include both the meanings and the purposes of the study participants. In addition, the researcher interpreted the sets of meanings motivated by the need for yielding insights and the need for understanding the use of the Strategic Integration of Facilities Management in Modern Construction and Sustainable Property Development.

  • With concerns for validity, representative and the generality of the research study, the following questions were used by the researcher in order to aid or act as the guiding principles in formulating the research design for the dissertation;

  • Data on what? What does these data represent and what do they not inform me?

  • Strength of claim; how well does the data inform me on this? How convincing are the claims that I intended to make on the basis of the data?

  • Integration of data? How best can I integrate and derive sense of different forms of the qualitative data obtained?

This particular approach was essential in that it helped the researcher capture a detailed picture of the experiences of the participants, attitudes, as well as their perceptions regarding the effectiveness of the Strategic Integration of Facilities Management in Modern Construction and Sustainable Property Development.

3.3 Methodology

To examine the nature of Strategic Integration of Facilities Management in Modern Construction and Sustainable Property Development, the researcher used a qualitative research methodology involving a multiple case study approach. As a qualitative form of a research study, the researcher collected data and attempted to understand that data in a particular context. Due to the fact that the research study aimed at examining the effectiveness of the Strategic Integration of Facilities Management in Modern Construction and Sustainable Property Development, the primary data collected was emic. The researcher saw it ideal to carry out a case study in order to conduct an emic enquiry. Additionally, the researcher was seeking to establish themes that would emerge from the data collected in order to establish whether or not there were commonalities across the case studies.

3.4 Data Collection

In order to generate data that would be analyzed in an effort towards exploring the effectiveness of Strategic Integration of Facilities Management in Modern Construction and Sustainable Property Development, the researcher developed a number of questionnaires and interviews. Each of these targeted a specific population. The questionnaires made by the researcher were randomly distributed to the identified population thus providing a platform to collect data. The results of the analysis depended largely on the data set gathered by the researcher. As a result, data gathering was acknowledged to have one of the most essential roles of the research study and thus took a considerable period of time and resources.

3.5 Selection of data collection method

For a qualitative research study, there is a myriad of research methods advanced by authors. These include telephone interviews, personal interviews and email surveys. The researcher figured out email and web surveys specifically due to the nature of their complexity and technicality, as well as due to the fact that the researcher would be faced with immense challenges while attempting to personalize them. Personal interview was settled on by the researcher as the most appropriate method for collecting data. With personal interview, the probability of bias on the part of the interviewer was mitigated. Besides, it was a much more interactive method as the researcher was able to get deeper into the responses that the participants provided by asking them to explain further. Moreover, using the personal interview data collection approach, the researcher was placed in a better position to provide an explanation to clarify ambiguous questions and was also able to regulate which of the respondents provided their answers.

In addition to these reasons, the researcher saw personal interviews as much more economical and reliable as compared to other methods of collecting research data. The main drawback that the researcher faced was that the perceptions on the part of the respondent that the information that he or she provided would be used against that person, case of respondents not giving comprehensive information or withholding essential information were prevalent. However, the researcher explained the privacy measures that he had taken in order to guarantee the safety of the responses. During the process of recording the interviews, in order to secure privacy, the researcher only rerecorded the position of the respondent within the industry. For the questionnaires, it was expected that the exact number that the researcher dispensed to the research respondents would not be the same submitted back. The core reason for this is that some of the respondents were inclined to disregard filling them. To eliminate such a problem, the researcher adopted counter strategies; he initiated a follow-up process motivated with the aim of ensuring that the questionnaires were filled and that any difficulty that was likely to be experienced by the respondent was solved, and as a result, the number of unreturned questionnaires was not prevalent like it would have been if the researcher never did this.

The researcher regulated the response duration. As such, he ensured that he sent a reminder mailing after every fortnight. The process of collecting data took approximately two months, and what followed after is data analysis in an effort towards establishing whether or not the research question that was being studied had actually been answered. The researcher also carried out a pretesting, and this was aimed at identifying the ambiguous questions and additionally determines whether or not the order of questions was right.

3.6 Design of the Questionnaire

The study basically applied fixed alternative questions. The questionnaires for the research study were composed of dichotomous questions, multi-chotomous questions while others were designed to scales. The questionnaire was designed primarily with the help of some questions sourced from the existing literatures. The multi-chotomous questions utilized by the researcher involved the respondents selecting among the various alternatives provided by the researcher, which closely matches their views regarding the subject matter being discussed. On the other hand, the dichotomous questions were designed in such a way that they only had two alternatives from which the study participants were required to choose from as a way of providing their responses. On their part, the scale questions were used in an effort towards determining the frequency of happening and also determine how much a study participant would either agree or disagree with the form of question asked.

The study questionnaire was divided into three precise parts. The first part was composed of general questions that sought to explore the background of the respondent. The second section of the questionnaire was designed in such a way that insights regarding the effectiveness of the Strategic Integration of Facilities Management in Modern Construction and Sustainable Property Development would be determined. The last part of the questionnaire was seeking to provide a ranking scale and precoding for the reasons for effectiveness or ineffectiveness. A sample of the questionnaire used in the study is attached as an appendix.

3.8 Sampling

This particular study is aimed at examining the extent of effectiveness of the Strategic Integration of Facilities Management in Modern Construction and Sustainable Property Development. To address this, there was a need to identify the study respondents who would lead to the successful completion of the study. From the nature of the research question, a target population of project developers was identified. Primarily, the developers are best suited for this study considering that they will provide the most reasonable insights since they directly deal with the Construction and Sustainable Property Development. In this regard, they have a better experience with the Strategic Integration of Facilities Management than any other stakeholder in the industry. They can tell more appropriately their experience with the changed elements in relation to the past practice before Integration of Facilities Management was introduced into the scene. Therefore, they were the best group to tell how effective the Integration of Facilities Management has been. Having provided the rationale of identifying this target group, the researchers identified the precise number of the participants. In this regard, the researcher decided to use 20 developers. For this group, the researcher used a random selection method in which every subject of the population had an equal chance of being recruited. While the members of the target group were particularly big, the researcher had to specify the inclusion and the exclusion criteria.

3.9 Inclusion Criteria

To become an eligible subject of the target group, the researcher specified that for a developer, it is the developer who had a considerable experience in the industry. To be precise, it is the developer who had an experience or had a greater insight of the two approaches to Construction and Sustainable Property Development before and after the Strategic Integration of Facilities Management.

3.10 Exclusion Criteria

The researcher excluded all those construction and developers who have no experience or insights into the older practice. If selected, this group would be very inappropriate since the objective of the research would not be successfully achieved.

3.11 Pilot Study

The researcher pre-tested the questionnaire before using it to collect the required data. The main aim of this was to refine it such that the confusion that would have been faced by the respondents was eliminated. Additionally, it enabled the researcher to evaluate both the reliability and the validity of the data that was to be collected. Any terminologies that the respondents would perceive as hindering their capability of giving a precise response were simplified or explained. After a review of the refined questionnaire, the researcher distributed it to six study respondents. These assisted the researcher to pilot the questionnaire and, at the same time, allowed him to discuss the problems with the respondents. After this, the researcher implemented the formal research.

3.12 Data Analysis

Once the filled questionnaires were received from the identified research respondents, the researcher used the SPSS software in order to analyze that data. To be clearer, the majority of the questions were designed with a intention to ask the respondents to evaluate the effectiveness of each variable entailed in the Strategic Integration of Facilities Management in Modern Construction and Sustainable Property Development ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree). Through the application of the SPSS software, both the means score and the standard deviation were calculated by the researcher and some comparisons employed in order to confirm with which variable the research subjects agreed as the most valuable in delivering effectiveness of the Strategic Integration of Facilities Management in Modern Construction and Sustainable Property Development. Besides, correlation tests (spearman’s who) were used in order to explore whether or not the factors had a relationship with the overall effectiveness of the Strategic Integration of Facilities Management in Modern Construction and Sustainable Property Development. By providing a description, as well as comparing the data collected from the study respondents, the chief views that were mentioned in the review of the literature could either support or challenge the findings of this research study.

3.13 Role of BIM in modern FM and property development

BIM usually play an integral role throughout the project development life cycle. According to Tse, Wong and Wong (2005), BIM usually goes beyond the planning, as well as, the design stage of a modern project, extending throughout the life cycle of building, supporting processes, which include management of costs, management of construction, management of a project and facility operation.

3.14 BIM in Construction Management

Developers or participants in the construction and building processes are often challenged in their attempt to deliver successful projects despite the accelerated schedules, tight budgets, a restricted number of manpower and limited and even conflicting information. According to Goedert and Meadati (2008), there is a need for fundamental disciplines such as architecture to be exemplarily coordinated since there is no way that two things can take the same place. When integrated, BIM usually helps greatly in detecting collisions at the very first stage where the exact location of the discrepancies is identified. Isikdag and Underwood (2001) indicates that the BIM concept usually envisage virtual construction of a facility before its actual physical construction. As a result, uncertainties, safety, works out challenges are significantly reduced and at the same time, potential impacts are analyzed and simulated.

In addition to this, quantities, as well as, the shared properties of materials can be extracted in an easy manner. According to Tse, Wong and Wong (2005), with BIM integrated, it follows that scopes of works are isolated and then defined. Vanlande, Nicolle and Cruz (2008) further add that systems, assemblies, in addition to, sequences can be depicted in a relative scale with the entire facility or even group of facilities. Still in the context of construction management, BIM is very fundamental as it helps prevent errors. This is usually met through enabling conflict or clash detection where the computer model highlights the parts of the building that may intersect wrongly to the team in a visual way.

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