Sep 26, 2019 in Analysis

book The Civil Rights Movement

The Civil Rights movement made an essential contribution to obtaining racial equality of human and civil rights. The events which occurred during the history of the Freedom Movement facilitated significant progress in suppressing of racism and manifestation of social protest.

The growth of the Civil Rights Movement is connected with social resistance of black Americans aimed at receiving the same rights as the white part of US citizens. Prehistory of the Freedom Movement lasted within the long centuries of slavery, segregation of black people, and domination of whites in all spheres of human activity. Black people were doomed by inferiority, disrespect, obedience to whites. These events occurred during formation of the country and reformation of many socio-political and socioeconomic aspects of its life.

Creation of ghettos occurred in the North where the majority of African Americans moved from the racist rejection of the Northern States. The society was so overflowing with violence that blacks were forced to settle in another place leaving their homes in the Southern States. The black community was represented in the inner-city locations by African Americans who discovered that the Movement would make their life a little easier. Eventually, ghettos began to fill larger parts of the cities owing to the new citizens.

Because of the numerous violent or non-violent cases concerning the Movement, many employers refused to hire black employees. Regarding the segregation, whites showed nonacceptance through refusal to employ. Due to economic shift away from agriculture in the 1950s, the number of black population working on farms decreased. Labor productivity of black Americans was higher, but work inequity and social conflicts led to doubling the unemployment rate. In the 1950s, the number of official positions held by whites, were as twice as many in comparison with blacks.

Cases of segregation began to move the Southern States regarding the issue of. The decision on integration, which would include both whites and blacks was not made for a long time in the politics and society of this part of the country.

The case of Rosa Parks, bus boycott in Montgomery, numerous strikes and demonstrations were the continuation of the protest manifestations of blacks against their unequal and arrogant treatment by whites. The trial of the black boycotters initiated by the local authorities attracted the world's attention to the serious consequences of segregation in America. The defenders of the rights of blacks endured much violence. However, gradual integration of black population into educational institutions and transport yielded some small positive results.

One of the most high-profile cases of the Movement for the Civil Rights is the Brown v. Board of Education. It was the case of the Supreme Court of the United States, which considered segregation of schools for whites and blacks. According to this case, the division of public schools by race in order to provide education to both races was unconstitutional, as it emphasized racial differences and did not comply with the principles of the U.S. Constitution on equal rights for every person.

In the 1950s, there were some key personalities, who influenced the course of the above-mentioned social events. Martin Luther King, Jr. led a protest of blacks in 1955, which lasted for more than one year. This man is still associated by the black population of America with equality, freedom, and recognition (albeit largely theoretical) of blacks as full members of American society. This is one of the most legendary and honored personalities, who not only stood in the center of the Movement in the 1950s, but also largely contributed to obtaining of civil rights for the black population of the United States.

One of the key roles was played by Earl Warren, who was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He supported the position that segregation of the schools by the students' skin color creates inequity of rights. This statement and the case closed four years later led to the end of discrimination and the union of white and black students in the same educational establishments, which provided them with true equality of civil rights.


Such an important person as Thurgood Marshall also refuted segregation of educational institutions. This judge actively supported the initiative to desegregate schools and universities, defending the rights of black students in different educational establishments of the country, and handled the case of Brown v. Board of Education to demonstrate that segregation is contrary to the constitutional principles of the country.

Distinctive and significant events took place after detention of dark-skinned Rose Park exclusively for an offense to a white passenger that took place on the bus. This angered the black population and marked the beginning of non-violent protests. In the midst of passing laws and regulations on equality between blacks and whites, so-called strikes and demonstrations became known not only in America.

The Montgomery bus boycott showed that boycotted local transport services were not profitable to transport companies, where whites worked, which was also a sign of inequality, lack of civil rights of blacks, and evidence of segregation in the use of means of transportation. By the boycotting, the black population of the city also demonstrated their attitude to the murder of Emmet Till. The black boy was beaten to death for allegedly flirting with a white woman. This case revealed the cruelty of whites against blacks, and promoted of the outcome of Brown v. Board of Education case. This murder took place in the northern part of America, even though the boy was from the South and lived with relatives. An important event was the suppression of strikes against bus segregation and for appropriate laws by the decision of the Chief Justice in November 1956. After lasting for a month, the Montgomery Bus Boycott was stopped, which gave further development to civil rights movement.

Blacks pressed their case for rights to enjoy the general public transportation, to attend cafes and restaurants, swimming pools and other public places. In 1957, the case of several dark-skinned students from Little Rock, Arkansas, was another example of insensitivity of whites to the integration in education. Attendance of the local school by nine black pupils was accompanied by a military squad to repel aggressive white students. These and many other cases of whites confronting people of different race in the 1950s were primarily presented by blacks who were violated in their civil rights through the stubbornness of nationalistic and Nazi beliefs of whites.

The Montgomery Improvement Association was formed in the midst of the Movement and had a goal to attract the national and world publicity about the problem of racial discrimination. Its president was Martin Luther King, who led the members of the black community. The Association’s actions were performed in support of the black population and promotion of boycotts. This organization initiated the activity of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, which was aimed at carrying out the non-violent boycotts and other acts of defiance focused on desegregation of public places in the Northern States. In addition to this, the Conference promoted rights of black voters.

At that time, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the organization headed by E. Nixon, showed the adherence to the African-American spirits. Its achievements are numerous initiatives in support of socioeconomic, political and other rights of colored people. Other nations were also under its protection, as there were other minority groups that were abused as well.

However, not only African Americans at that time had to fight for their rights and win the freedom of action. As part of the general Movement of Civil Rights, Chitano, another movement appeared. It was intended to defend the democratic and tolerant attitude to the immigrants from South America. The public manifestation of discrimination forced this ethnic group to struggle for their rights in the 1960s. One of the results which remain relevant until this day is the active work of the organization to unify Latino Americans. It made obtaining ethnic and political solidarity to the Latin Americans easier.

The Mendez v. Westminster case was won by the NAACP, as it had proven the fact of racial segregation in Orange County in 1946. Later it was made mixed for the American and Mexican students. This case exemplified one more step to getting civil rights by racial minorities of America. In addition, desegregation of schools was also provided for the children in this ethnic group. Representatives of this movement became part of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.

Segregation against Japanese nationals occurred earlier, in the early 1900s. Racial discrimination prohibited intermarriage, shared classes and mixed-race schools. Moreover, at that time, anti-Japanese laws in America did not allow American Japanese to receive U.S. citizenship. In addition, in wartime, Japanese nationals were forced to the camps. These actions took place despite the American Japanese service in the U.S. Army during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

Determination of fundamental importance of freedom appears to be the most significant historical fight of ethnic groups for their civil rights. Freedom is determined by the measure of their rights for coexistence, development, and self-realization without prejudice and abuse from others. Freedom is defined by social awareness, self-esteem, confidence, and mutual understanding in the environment where the person lives.

The Movement for the Civil Rights, which developed in America in the early 1950s, raised many questions for the democratic world community. It has significantly reduced racial discrimination, segregation, and racial intolerance. Through suffering and feeling violence towards themselves, ethnic groups won the right to equal coexistence in US society.


Related essays