Answers to Questions
The crafts of dyeing and mine contributed ___________________ to the development of chemistry.
The scientific method
In “Vegetable Staticks” , Stephen Hale proved __________________ about ‘air’.
In working with pumps, Robert Boyle proved that air was _______________ and this led to Boyle’s Law.
Transmission of sound
What is Boyle’s Law? __________________
It is a law which states that at aconstant temperature for a certain mass, the absolute pressure and the volume of a gas are inversely proportional
Combustion was an ever-popular subject of study. How was it explained? What was left after
combustion occurred and how was that explained in the 18th century?_____________
Combustion was explained as a permanent chemical reaction between fuels and oxidants that led to production of heat. After combustion occurred there was the release of heat in the form of light since combustion involves oxidants
What meant by the term ‘dephlogisticated air’?___________________
This is oxygen gas
Three people were working on (#7). Name two.___________ and __________________.
Richard Morris and Dr. Priestly
Women were expected to cook; who in the early 19th century attempted to extend that skill to science?_______________________
Herve This, a chemist
While they were cooking (see #10), what other household chemical items were women expect to provide?
Washing utensils and clothes
John Dalton revived an ancient philosophical idea and applied it to chemistry. What was it?__
The atomic theory
How did that concept (#12) explain the new idea of a ‘molecule’?_____________________
It stated that molecules consists of atoms which are very small particles identical in size and they cannot be split
What are Dalton’s Laws and how to they explain #13?___________________ and ____________.
Dalton’s law is the law of partial pressures which states that the total pressure that a gaseous mixture exerts is equal to the sum of the pressures of each individual component of the mixture.
How did E. Swallow-Richards reconstruct cookery into science?__________________
In 1882, Richards set up model kitchens that were open to public to teach them how to do other activities like physical fitness alongside cookery.
The Curies discovered two new elements. What properties of these did they also discover?____________________
The two elements that they discovered were polonium and radium. They discovered that uranium was intensively radioactive and its rays caused the air around them to conduct electricity.
How did their work affect the concepts introduced by John Dalton?__________________
The curies came up with the theory of radioactivity which explained how to isolate radioactive isotopes. This discovery led to the introduction of John Dalton’s law of partial pressures.
What was Rosalind Franklin attempting to find? _____________________
The structure of the Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
What equipment was she using?_____________________
An X-ray machine
What is a coden? _____________________
The term coden refers to a series of alphanumeric codes made up of six characters that are used for the identification of a serial publication. It was designed by Charles Bishop to aid him identify the publications in his reference collection by use of a given code.
How does that relate to Franklin’s work?__________________________
Franklins work showed the exact compositions that made up the structure of the DNA which is the same case to coden
What is the chemical explanation of the biological concept of a mutation?______________
Mutations are the changes in the DNA sequence caused by either radiation viruses or mutagenic chemicals. Mutation refers to the spontaneous change in the cell particularly the genomic sequence. It is induced by several factors such as, viruses, mutagenic chemicals, radiations, meiotic division errors, or errors in DNA replication. Offspring inherit mutation stably if the said mutation is not a dynamic one.
What is a protein ?______________________
A protein is a biochemical compound that consists of one or more polypeptides and facilitates a biological function
What is an isomer?________________________
An isomer in chemistry, is a compound which has the same molecular formula but different structural formulas
Draw two different compounds both having the empirical formula C5H12.
pentane and neopentane
BONUS: D. Crowfoot-Hodgkin worked on the structure of penicillin. The structure of this compound greatly determines how it functions. Explain what that means.
The discovery of the structure of penicillin turned out to be very essential as it facilitated the production of chemically modified penicillin. This penicillin was very useful particularly for treating wounded soldiers during the war.