Risk Factors of Life Expectancy
The contemporary world aims to reach the most optimal terms of development practically in every sphere of life. Evolution is a significant part of the world’s movement towards future. However, health remains the main issue in the performance of every nation. The current discussion is a reflection of life expectancy data and risk factors associated with it on the example of Australia and India. The following discussion is an illustration of keeping up-to-date with the latest tendencies and trends in changes of the health level. If the world is willing to make continuous discoveries, it is necessary to have a finger on the pulse of health trends.
Life Expectancy and its Risk Factors in Australia
According to the information received from the official website of the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, it is possible to claim that Australia managed to decrease its death rate. Moreover, people live longer and have significantly less disabilities and complications after diseases. Life expectancy is the most appropriate way of measuring the overall health of a specific population. It is easy to identify the level of life expectancy by assuming the current death rate of both male and female at different age. Today, the Australian life expectancy trend looks in the following way:
Figure 1. Life Expectancy Rate in Australia
The rising trend of life expectancy is a proof that Australia managed to overcome the diseases which ruined the overall level of the population’s health in the past. For example, at the beginning of the 20th century, Australia suffered from parasitic and infectious diseases. However, today, Australian healthcare system rarely faces the same diseases. The list of risk factors associated with the diseases is not broad but worrying enough to make the government think about the improved methods of regulating health rate. The following passage reveals risk factors associated with life expectancy in Australia, which may become triggers of the negative tendency in the overall level of health.
Risk factors associated with life expectancy rate are the following ones: obesity, smoking, high blood cholesterol and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity is also a risk factor of CVD, which leads to the increase in the death rate. According to the Australian Institute of Health, 63% of adults suffer from obesity. The main reason is fast food, which destroys health and increases body mass index (BMI).
High blood cholesterol is one of the consequences of consuming fast food instead of making healthy food choices. Fast food contains an extremely high level of saturated fat, which raises the level of cholesterol. Unfortunately, only a small percentage of Australians monitor the nutrition value of each product and meal.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major reason for thousands of deaths among Australians. It is one of the biggest problems, which continues to strike the population and lead to a significant decrease in the overall level of health. According to the Australian Heart Foundation, 43,603 Australians died because of CVD in 2013. It is a single serious problem in Australia which leads to the increase of the death rate.
Life Expectancy and its Risk Factors in India
India is a region of contrasts, even in the aspect of healthcare system. Life expectancy has a positive tendency, which continues to rise. However, the rate of deaths below 50 years continues to increase. There are significant risk factors which continue to bother India and threaten lives of thousands of people. Alcoholism and smoking are two main risk factors which lead to the spread of heart attacks destroying health of millions of Indians. The following chart reflects the latest tendencies in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco:
Figure 2. Adult’s Risk Factors
The World Health Organisation (WHO) is one of the organisations that worry about the health rate in India. It is a fact that Indians switched from the infectious type of diseases to lifestyle problems. From the figure presented above, it is possible to see that obesity is not a problem for India, while tobacco use and raised blood pressure remain the alarming issues that lead to heart attacks. In addition, smoking leads to changes in the metabolic system of human body and dietary habits and a significant increase in alcohol use. The world along with India managed to combat infectious diseases.
The main problem of life expectancy in India is that unhealthy habits have a ruinous effect on the overall welfare of the population. In addition, the problem is that Indians cannot afford combating alcohol abuse and smoking due to high prices of treatment. Cardiovascular disease mortality is the primary reason for deaths faced by Indians below 50 years. In general, all these factors create a significant problem in the rising of mortality. The government should be the source of changes in the lifestyle patterns of Indians. However, the statistical data of WHO does not provide promising alterations in the health indicators. It means that India suffers from a wide range of risk factors, which can have a damaging effect on the life expectancy rate.
Both countries suffer from heart attacks that are caused by inappropriate lifestyle and unhealthy habits. Australians tend to suffer from obesity and inactive lifestyle, while Indians cannot stop alcohol abuse and excessive smoking. In general, both regions suffer from heart attacks, which continue to strike the population regardless of the impressive achievements in the healthcare system. Otherwise, the life expectancy rate will have a major decrease in India. Australia, in its turn, needs to learn how to teach the population to choose healthy eating habits in favour of the prolonged life expectancy. If both regions continue to neglect the leading indicators of health, it is most likely that there will be not only a damaging effect to health and welfare of the nations, but also life expectancy will become extremely reduced.