A: Article title: A comparison of attitude, personality, and knowledge predictors of service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors.
Publication Name: American Psychological Association, Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol 86(1), Feb 2001, 29-41.
Authors Names: Bettencourt, Lance A.; Ginner, Kevin P.; Meuter, Matthew L.
Research Design: To come up with the comparison a descriptive research design was used to study the customer-contact with employees and then a self administered postal method of survey was used to study their personality, attitude and their knowledge antecedents (Bettencourt, Ginner, and Meuter, 2001). A longitudinal research design was used in the second study already available data about contact employees’ knowledge to determine the prediction of their behaviors to service oriented organizational citizenship.
Variables involved: Independent variables included customer attitude, personality and their knowledge while the dependent variables were the three service-oriented forms of OCBs (Organizational citizenship behaviors): service delivery, loyalty and participation.
Relationships proposed: The proposed relationships were that the ability of contact employees to effectively predict the service oriented OCB’s will vary depending on their attitude, personality and knowledge attitudes accounting for unique variance in loyalty, personality in service delivery and knowledge for participation.
Conclusion: This paper revealed that on the issues of service oriented forms of OCBs is depended on the employees’ personality, their knowledge and attitudes. Through a survey of customer contact employees, a test conceptual model has been developed to show a difference between the antecedents (Bettencourt, Ginner, and Meuter, 2001). The implications of these results are that employees should be able to balance between their attitudes and personalities as well as use their knowledge well in order to ensure developed organizational citizenship behaviour.
Article’s critique: The study was limited by the research method and design but it is very relevant to effective management of human resources to ensure customer satisfaction. It however neglected an important dimension of contemporary dynamics of customer service. Additional research on such an important issue is recommended.
B: Article title: The influence of motivation to attend, ability to attend, and organizational commitment on different types of absence behaviors.
Publication Name: PittsburgStateUniversity - Department of Economics; Journal of Managerial Issues- Summer, 2002
Authors Names: James P. Burton & Thomas W. Lee & Brooks C. Holtom
Research Design: A survey research deign was employed to study the performance of customer service employees with respect to their commitment to the organization’s output. The surveys were carried out on the employees in one department of a big national retailer.
Variables involved: The independent variables included the ability to attend work and the motivation to attend work, which were used to determine the attendance of the employees. The dependent variable was the attendance of the employees because it depended on the ability of the employees to attend or if they are motivated to do so.
Relationship proposed: The relations were based on Steers and Rhodes model that proposes that attendance is predicted by motivation to attend while ability to attend has an indirect effect on attendance.
Conclusion: The results of this study portrays that an employee’s ability work coupled with lack of motivation to attend work notably leads to his or her absenteeism. This kind of absenteeism is attributed to several family issues. On the other hand, a motivated employee may fail to attend due to such issues as illnesses and sickness. This study also supports the view that absenteeism is a multidimensional concept that should not jus be viewed in one orientation of either ability or motivation (Burton, Thomas, and Brooks, 2002). It is recommended that future researches should involve both specific and overall dimensions of absenteeism.
Critique: This study has several implications on management of firms since it helps to monitor the reasons for absenteeism of employees. This study was however limited by the failure of the items for measuring ability to form the underlying construct making it impossible to determine the exact measure of attendance influenced by ability. The use of predictive design of determining the results was the strength of this article presenting the attitudes of the employees about commitment and absenteeism long before they try to do so.