Jan 25, 2018 in Research

Cognitive Behavioral

In accordance with the most fundamental postulates of the contemporary adult psychology, it has been amplified that the theory of mind development can be defined as a capacity of a human being to conceive, and the beliefs, the intentions and the desires of the outsiders (the so-called mental states) differ from his personal ones.  The development of mind is the indicator which is used by the psychologists to define whether an adult is suffering mental deviations, if any.

This article is focused primarily on the issues connected with the way the mental development of the siblings occurs. Ultimately, it was found out that the mind development of the siblings is in direct causation with a significant number of different factors. These factors are generally of the internal and external origin. Internal factors are always connected with the mental and physical capabilities of the infant himself, while the external factors lie in the sphere of the parental intercourse, i.e. the way and the frequency with which the parents communicate with their adult.

It was ascertained that upbringing of an adult is a highly complicated social process which mandates that several factors should be meticulously considered to ensure that both physical and mental developments of an adult are safeguarded.

As far as the research methods are concerned, the adults were requested to take a series of primitive tests.  The tests were composed in accordance with the traditional structure of a TOM test.  Among the proposed assumptions of the researchers was the statement that the adults raised in the low-educated and low-budget families. In order to ensure that no social or peer pressure exercised, the kids were tested individually.

More exactly, the most fundamental postulates of the theory involve the assumption that the mind of a adult with a mean age 4,2 years  cannot develop without the outer influence of his or her parents or other adults, and siblings in particular. At this age, basic audiovisual skills of a human being are elaborated. An adult gradually masters how to speak, how to recognize the voice of his relations, and how to express his or her own desires and requests. The study affirmed the assumption that the personal physical peculiarities of a young toddler are of the secondary importance for his integral development. The most important is the frequency of the visual and audio communication with the siblings, although the significance of an intensive parental intercourse should not be neglected. The ultimate conclusions of the study were that the constant and incessant siblings’ intercourse positively contributes to the mental development of the adults.

 Having completed the research, the scholars have inferred that the capability to cope with the tests is not in any case linked to the education, financial and social status of the family which raises the adult.

Overall, it can be recapitulated that the mental development of the people with disorders at their early adulthood is in the direct causation with the effect done by the combination of internal and external factors, generated by the parents and other adults.  To finalize, it should be stated that the title of the report is completely consistent with the declared research objectives. The research is full and all-round, the applied evidences do correspond to the needs of the research and the theories and ideas have been interpreted and applied coherently.

An Introduction to Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Skills and Applications

There are many disputable assumptions concerning the theory of adult’s development. One of the most hotly contested by the different pedagogical communities is the idea that the adults fulfill the task when the difficulty of assignment is not fully comprehended by them. The analogy is often drawn between the adults and this fact constituted another point of contention, in particular, whether it is logical and scientifically substantiated to draw such analogies. The aim of the article is to prove the assumption (about how adults master the art of balancing) that the implementation of the new tasks is conducted with a great efficiency when the people with disorders do not conceive the complexity and the peculiarities of the task.

The article is written by the associate professors Pine and Messer. It presents a study which accentuates the sample with balancing of a beam of the people with disorders.  The main assumption of the study is the fact that the adults as well as the adolescents can perform an assigned task more effectively and intentionally when they still cannot explain the way in which they have achieved success. Overall, the article is focused on the study of the complex internal contingent mental processes of the adults’ mind. In particular, it is stated that the realization of the complexity of the task by the people with disorders will ultimately inhibit the implementation of the task.

Similarly, the approach can be applied when the implementation of the other tasks is concerned, not solely by the people with disorders, but by the adults as well. To illustrate, it has been exemplified that the adults are more likely to be taught how to swim when they still do not envision that they can sink if they are not able to keep afloat.

CBT Definition

Cognitive Behavioral therapy is the set of actions which are taken by the practitioner with the intent to treat the detected psychological deviations of the patient. Although there are different opinions of the scholars with regard to this definition, the one provided is the most informative one.

Basic Information about Case Formulation and Case Assessment Case Formulation

Case formulation is the one of the most fundamental constituents of the contemporary psychological theory.  The aim of this process is to help a practicing psychologist to detect the symptomology of the treated person and to draw a set of multiple inferential conclusions based on the basis of the obtained information. The process is deeply connected with the adjacent process of the case assessment.  It should be highlighted that the major difference among the two concepts is the fact that while the overall objective of the first component is to diagnose the anticipated psychological deviation of the targeted person, the aim of the second one is to conduct and estimation and the subsequent comparative analysis with the rest of the consimilar psychological deviations and mental disorders.

The process of the case formulation integrally contains two basic elements:

The first stage is the formulation of the hypothesis. This stage is aimed at the identification of the symptoms and the roots of the clients’ psychological disorder of his or her mental deviation. One of the most indispensable and fundamental postulates of this stage is the fact that the determination of the disorders should be necessarily subsequently corroborated by the empirical survey conducted by the practicing psychologist.

 Both processes are not necessarily connected with the psychological counseling and therapeutic procedures.  Moreover, the opinions that the formulation of the diagnosis for the client is not t always beneficial medically for his state have been advocated by the acknowledged scholars of international and domestic schools of practicing psychology. Multiple concerns have been expressed advocating the idea that the formulation of the diagnosis can break the balance of the equality between the psychologist and his client, ultimately leading to the lack of the trust among the two stakeholders of the process.  The process can be aggravated by the fact that very often these processes are conducted implicitly and if a client detects this hidden process the credence between him and the counselor can be uprooted indefinitely.

Moreover, the fact that needs to be obligatory accentuated is the statement that both processes are always cognitive in their natures, hereby purporting the fact that they both necessarily involve the composition of the hypothesis and  a plan designed to outline the actions that need to be undertaken to eradicate the detected negative ailments and various disorders.

Personal Experience and Reflections

This part of the paper outlines my personal reflections and the most important practical advices drawn from the CBT-related theories.

Although the importance and practical applicability of these techniques are vigorously contested by the group of dissenting scholars and researchers, it can be generally summarized that these factors have become integrally important for the needs of the contemporary applied psychology. However, another group of no less authoritative psychological luminaries fervently support the idea that the concepts of the case formulation and case evaluation are the issues which will determine the entire subsequent evolutional development of this field of contemporary psychology.

With regard to the establishment of the private practice, the importance of these concepts should never be underestimated due to the following facts.

First and foremost, despite all the criticism, the process of case formulation is indeed the most effective technique utilized for the determination of the diagnosis of the patient and the identification of these major deviations that should be subjected to the subsequent treatment. Moreover, in this context is should be additionally highlighted that the process of case formulation can be used for the needs of experience encapsulation. Since the individual cases and the ways the ailments of those cases were treated are summarized and collected in one study, the mentioned encapsulation can be used for the needs of the subsequent practice.

The Role of the Therapist

Therapist is known to be the individual specialist who eradicates various ailments diagnosed among the patients. The role played by him/her individually is immensely important for the needs of the contemporary medical practice in general and the proliferation of the CBT therapy in particular, since he/she is the major linking chain between the theory and the practice.

Moreover, the concept of evaluation techniques is no less important, since this technique is also among the most contributive primarily due to the fact that since the methods of the disorders evaluation are gradually accumulated, processes and the inferences thereof are always made, more complicated cases that will be encountered in future will be diagnosed and cured with ease.  Besides, this theory really facilitates the practicing community to identify the sources of distorted or dysfunctional way of thinking which are reviewed as the most fundamental grounds for the majority of the contemporary psychological disorders.

The Importance of Assessment within the CBT Practice

However effective the cognitive behavioral therapy may be, before the efficacy is proven for the international medical scholarly and practicing communities, the tactics and their efficiency should be independently tested. Alongside with the healing techniques, diagnosis formulation and effective patient treatment, the determination of the CBT efficiency with recourse to the assessment methods is becoming increasing important.

It is a widely accepted fact that the methods of case formulation and case evaluation are among the most effective toolkits which are utilized to archive the practice of the practicing community. In this context, it should be accentuated that the practicing community always recourse to the above discussed methods.

The methods of case formulation and case evaluation are ubiquitously reported to be among the most widely applied methods of data interchange among the psychologists and psychiatrists. These tools really help to accumulate, archive and effectively transmit information which relates to the negative automatic thoughts, which are regarded by the international scholarly community as one of the major sources of the mentally-related disorders and ailments, negative behavior and demeanor and somatic reactions of the patients and clients.  

More importantly, the discussed techniques are considered as being vitally important for the needs of formulation and concretization of the working hypothesis in each individual case of the detected deviations or dysfunctions of a patient or a client. The blueprint scheme is always completed on the basis of these assumptions and the theoretical inferences and practical evidences obtained as a result of the processes relating to the formulation and evaluation are necessarily applied within the course of the subsequent treatment of the targeted patients.

As far as the treatments of the anxiety, panic disorder or depression are concerned, several specific important assumptions should be stressed. First and foremost, conventional algorithms of the problem formulation and evaluation, discussed in the previous abstracts are to be followed.  In other words, it is integrally important for the needs of successful ailment detection and subsequent treatment that the problem is to systematically analyze and process in full accordance with the procedures of the cognitive theory model. 

The treatment of the most common panic disorders is peculiar in contrast to the rest of the frequently encountered disorders. First and foremost, the panic disorders treatment involves a multiple set of sedative and appeasement techniques designed to stabilize the state of the patient and to make him susceptible to the subsequent treatment.


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