Microbiology – New Disease
Once at the location/site of infection where it is considered as the locus of activity of the infectious agent, the first step would entail separating people showing symptomatic and symptomatic signs of the infection. The next step would be to collecting stool samples for later laboratory analysis. In a bid to establish a possible connection point between the new suspect microbes and the disease this will ordinarily entail the microorganisms will be indentifies under a microscope identified using direct examination methods, for instance, microscopy and gram staining in order to identify some of the displayed morphological features. This would also entail the isolation of causative agents. “An understanding of the types of media available and their use will increase the chances of isolating a causative agent” (Shimeld & Rodgers 475).
Direct examination using the light microscope would be done to identify organism features using the stained components. This would entail using the most appropriate magnification resolutions for direct microscopy. Differential staining would also be done using gram staining techniques. “The difference between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria is in the permeability of the cell wall to these complexes on treatment with mixtures of acetone and alcohol solvents” (Ryan, Ray & Sherris 232).
The basic mechanism of establishing the mode of transmission of the identified microorganism in the new hosts will involve employing inoculation procedures in which the microorganism will be introduced into a test organism, essentially described as ex-situ arrangement where is grown out of the normal host. First, the microorganisms would be cultured using nutrient media, selective media, and indicator media. Nutrient media are essentially meant to satisfy growth of the microorganism in order to allow easy isolation and propagation (Ryan, Ray & Sherris 236). Selective media are essentially used for the identification of pathogenic organisms. On the other hand, indicator media are meant to demonstrate the biochemical functions of the specific pathogens under study (Ryan, Ray & Sherris 237). The organisms would then be inoculated in the chosen culture media. After inoculation, the media needs to be incubated to allow growth under the right temperatures depending on whether it is an aerobic or anaerobic process. “Once growth is detected in any medium, the process of identification begins. Identification involves the use of methods to obtain pure cultures from single colonies, followed by tests to characterize and identify the isolate” (Ryan, Ray & Sherris 238). Identifying the causative agent would then involve the pursuance of cultural characteristics, biochemical characteristics, toxin production and pathogenicity, antigenic structure, and genomic structures in order to identify the transmission mechanisms to new hosts.
In addition, this would entail a consideration of the respective host resistance factors, microbial mechanisms of pathogenicity, and pathological mechanisms seen in the new host (Shimeld & Rodgers 23). First in host resistance, this will entail consideration of the innate and adaptive resistance factors. Secondly, microbial pathogenicity mechanisms would entail consideration of the respective routes of entry, adherence and invasion mechanisms, toxins production, avoidance of host defence mechanisms, and dissemination to a new host (Shimeld & Rodgers 23). Thirdly, pathological mechanisms on the host would entail studying cellular damage, display of hypersensitivity reactions in the host and host susceptibility factors (Shimeld & Rodgers 23).