Aug 7, 2020 in Research

Racism: How it relates to Liberalism

The existence, acceptance, and appreciation of diversity in regard to race, gender, ethnicity, religion, and culture promoting multiculturalism. In modern liberal democracies, policy legislation has been applied to promote multiculturalism. This however has neither hindered nor prevented people from being racist. According to Gabrielle and Yin , more than a third of the world populations are racists. More so, they believe diversity does not promote acceptance and unity. Racism across United States has expanded beyond race as it is now applied as an excuse to escape responsibilities. For example, some black liberals have relied on the notion of racism to avoid being criticized. Racism refers to forms of exclusion and violence applied to deny a particular race parcel of social, economic, and political liberalism. Racism therefore is based on the notion that, a particular race is superior to others. American government has been developing legislatures to help battle racism by emphasizing that laws promoting equality enhance liberalism. Racism in United States has influenced notions of multiculturalism prompting the need to include anti-racist praxis to enhance liberalism 

There are diverse forms of racism witnessed across United States. Structural racism refers to normalization and legitimization of arrays of dynamics in regard to cultural, historical, interpersonal and institutional aspects. Structural racism across United States favors persons from the white community by producing cumulative and chronic adverse results for people from other communities including blacks and Latinos.  Structural racism can therefore be discussed as a system of hierarchy and inequalities. It is primarily characterized by white supremacy. This is because persons from the white community receive preferential treatment. More so, they enjoy privileged powers at the expense of persons from other communities includes Blacks, Asians, Native Americans, Arabs, Latinos, and Pacific Islanders among other racially oppressed people. Structural racism therefore covers systems enhancing white supremacy diffusing and infusing social, economic, political, cultural, and historical fabrics of the country as it is the most profound and pervasive form of racism.


Structural racism can be manifested based on the inequalities of power, accessibilities, and forms of treatment as well as opportunities, and policies impacting diverse communities. Individual racism refers to internalized racism among people. Individual racism is manifested privately. Forms of individual racism include internalized oppression, prejudice, and privilege as well as xenophobia. For example, blacks believe police officers handle them with force as the racially black persons are stereotyped as violent. This form of stereotype enhances individual racism among people who believe blacks are angry and violent individuals.  Institutional racism is experienced within and among institutions. Key indicators of institutional racism include formulation and implementation of unfair policies, discriminatory treatments, and provision of inequitable opportunities. These indicators are produced and perpetuated by and against institutions such as schools, health care centers, and the media.

Institutional racism is influenced by people in power of the institutions striving to act in ways benefiting a particular race at the expense of other races or communities. For example, when medical practitioners treat patients with racial bias, they enhance institutional racism within the medical or health care institution. In United States, white supremacy has been historically based, institutionally perpetuated into the systems in order to exploit and oppress persons of color. This is in attempts to maintain and defend systems if wealth, privilege, and power. Thus, persons from the white community have often been favored and allowed to enjoy rights and forms of immunities people from other communities were being denied. This has led white communities to seize cultural, economic, legal, social, educational, military, political, religious, and familial privileges while enhancing racial oppression against persons of color.

According to John Nagle, multiculturalism across United States was not clearly established at federal levels. As a result, lack of racial and ethnic diversity has been common across the country since the nineteenth century. Consequently, the country has been facing challenges in ensuring the American society assimilates and integrates diverse social, political, religious, economic, cultural, and racial and ethnic multiculturalisms enhancing national unity. Consequently, racism has been expanding denying people from various ethnic communities from freely, fairly, and truly expressing themselves in the society without fear and intimidation. 

Inequity and inequality are terms often used to emphasize the need to address racism. Inequity refers to disadvantages or disparities attributed to racism. Conversely, inequality refers to differences or conditions of being unequal. In United States, inequality highlights inequitable situations which can be avoided. For example, differences in outcomes among whites and blacks are forms of disadvantages that can be avoided by accepting and appreciating racial and ethnic diversity. These differences however have been ignored by people on individual, structural, and institutional levels leading to genetic propensity towards racism. For example, some employment opportunities are often preserved for whites denying blacks an opportunity to prove they are equally skilled and empowered. For a long period of time, United States has been ruled by only white presidents. After Barrack Obama was declared the president, blacks developed the notion that he would fight for their rights. Their assumptions developed from the notion that, a black president had the opportunity to provide blacks with privileges they believed they had been denied for centuries under the leadership of white presidents. 

As a result, they failed to recognize a black president ought to fight for equity and equality without focusing on race or ethnic communities in the country. Thus, when the president continued to formulate and implement policies acknowledging and embracing diversity some people from the black community were neither amused nor impressed. The president’s efforts to oppose racially based policies have led some citizens to be hypersensitive to racism in spite the Attorney General also being black. Racism should therefore be discussed based on the ideology that it is false or unscientific and partial as it supports vested capitalist interests. As a result, it hinders liberalism as racism’s realities are often distorted, clouded, and obscured by dominant racial groups with interest to exploit, oppress and discriminate other communities. Races justified in feeling inferior in order to experience unequal treatments should therefore be identified and applied in affirming racism does not support the structural and institutional aspects of human kind. Racial domination and subjugation ensures social, economic, and political systems develop forms of hierarchy producing disparities among races and ethnic communities to hinder liberalism by devaluing others and justifying the inequities and inequalities they are experience.

There are various responses that can be applied to fight racism and enhance liberalism across United States. To combat individual racism, people should dispel false beliefs about other races. They should also promote empathy to enhance intercultural contacts. Consequently, institutional and structural racism can be combated based on the following responses. Foremost, the media should be regulated in order to increase anti-racism public media campaigns promoting national unity. More so, legislations providing all races in the country with equal opportunities should be formulated and implemented. Institutional ombudsmen should also been keen in ensuring anti-racism audits are undertaken across various institutions including companies, schools, health care facilities, and police forces. Regular reviews should also be carried out to identify the nature, prevalence, and solutions to diverse forms of racism being witnessed in institutional and structural settings. Lastly, capacities monitoring and reporting behaviors and attitudes encouraging racism should be increased.

These measures will ensure liberalism is achieved which will increase the rates at which races are able to access and afford housing, appropriate health care, education, employment, and welfare support. Consequently, informational process distributing policies and rights against racism will be effective and efficient. More so, programs focusing against racism to encourage and support social, economic, and political participation will be identified and supported. Ultimately, racism involving prejudice, stereotypes, disparities, oppression, discrimination, domination, and unequal treatment ought to be resolved to enhance liberalism. Multicultural policies addressing disadvantages and risks associated with racism and alienation of races and diversity should be enforced. The policies should discourage targets of racism from taking recourse to combat individuals, structural, and institutional systems hindering the citizens to achieve liberalism.

In conclusion, it is evident racism neither appreciates nor promotes liberalism. It is also evident that, individual, structural, and institutional racism do not achieve either equality or equity. Efforts against racism should therefore be applied directly to address the complex socioeconomic, sociopolitical, and cultural phenomena to enhance anti-racist praxis.  A multicultural approach embracing diversity by encouraging races to live together should therefore be identified and applied to achieve anti-racist liberalism. Foremost, social conditions should be created embracing diversity in order to sustain concepts of solidarity while increasing integration of races. Demographic make-up of modern states in the country should also be applied in conceiving norms and principles upholding rights of all individuals to equality and equity. Consequently, diversity will ensure races are able to access and participate in cultural, political, social, and economic lives shaping their liberal beliefs. 


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