Jan 25, 2018 in Research

book Research for Metabolism

Steven Dowshen in his article Teens health claims that metabolism is the chain of chemical reaction that takes place in the body. In other words, metabolism as a process converts food into fuel, which is very important for the organism: from growing to moving.It is important to mention, that metabolism is a life long process. It starts when we are conceived and finish as soon as we die. Without the metabolism, life is impossible.

The energy body receives from the food we eat. One of the ways to harvest energy is cellular respiration, which helps to create the way for producing the adenosine triphosphate, or well-known ATP (Bailey, 2009). ATF is high-energy molecule. It transfers energy from chemical bonds to energy absorbing reactions, or endergonic, within the cell. ATP has structure. It consists of the adenine nucleotide and two other phosphate groups. Adenine nucleotide includes ribose sugar, adenine base and PO4-2 (phosphate group). 

When adenosine is bonded to a phosphate group, makes adenosine monophosphate or in other words AMP. From the Figure 1 can say that ATP I very similar to the building blocks for DNA. From adenosine diphosphate or ADP, AMP can be joined by dehydration. Via hydrolysis the energy can be released again and reaction can be in one-way direction or another. 

High-energy bonds are those who hold the last two phosphate groups. As a result it takes a lot energy to create the bond. Usually the bond is symbolized as “~”. In ATP high-energy bonds store the energy and “transport” it later by moving ATP in other place somewhere in the cell.

Glycolysis is the process of splitting sugar into molecules of a three-carbon sugar. In the process of glycolysis are involved two molecules of ATP, two high-energy Needham molecules and two molecules of pyruvic. One important thing about glycolysis it can occure with or without oxygen. If oxygen is present the first stage is cellular respirarion. Without oxygen cells can make a small amount of ATP.

The first step proceeds in the cell’s cytoplasm. From ATP the phosphate group is transferred to glucose 6 – phosphate. After this glucose 6 – phosphate is transferred with the enzyme phosphoglucoisomerase into its isomer fructose 6 – phosphate. The formula is the same, though the atoms of the molecule are arranged differently. Then, on the hird stage, the enzyme phosphoglucoisomerase with the help of another ATP molecule transfers a phosphate group to fructose 6 – phosphate and then to 1, 6 – bisphosphate. With the help of enzyme aldolase, on the fourth stage 1, 6 – bisphosphate is splited into two sugars: dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde phosphate (Bailey, 2012).

During the six step the enzyme triose phosphate dehydrogenase has two main functions. One is that the enzyme transfers the hydrogen from glyceraldehydes phosphate. The other is that enzyme triose phosphate dehydrogenase adds a phosphate from the cytosol to the oxidized glyceraldehyde phosphate. Then enzyme phosphoglycerokinase transfers phosphate from 1,3 – bisphosphoglycerate to a molecule of ADP to form ATP. In the process are involved two 3 – photoglycerate molecules and two molecules of ATP.  On the eight step, the enzyme phosphoglyceromutase relocates the phosphate from 1, 3 bisphosphoglycerate from the third carbon. After this the enzyme enolase  removes a molecule of water from 2 – phosphoglycerate. As the last step, enzyme pyruvate kinase transfers phosphate from PEP to ADP in order to form pyruvic acid and ATP (Bailey, 2012). 

During the Krebs cycle occur three main stages. In the process is produced guanosine triphosphate, which gives a phosphate group to ADP to form one ATP. After this, three molecules of NAD are reduced, as well as one molecule of FAD. With the help of GTP forms one molecule of ATP. Between the NAD and FAD is a fascinating process of cell energy creating. This is thanks to the donation of the electrons of NADH and FADH2, which generate the most of the energy to form molecules of the ATP.

There are also few basic steps in electron transport. Usually they are called complex. So complex I remove electrons from NADH and then transfers to a lipid – soluble carrier. Within the membrane the reduce is free to diffuse. Producing the proton gradient across the membrane moves four protons (H+) at the same time. As a result, on the sites of Complex I produces oxygen and one harmful radical superoxide.  

Next Complex serves top funnel additional electrons. Usually in the quinine pool (Q). as a result electrons from succinate move to Q.  in the process of the Complex II are involved SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD proteins. Most electrons are produced without proton gradient.

Complex III may leak electrons. So mostly superoxide are formed. They are highly toxic types. As a result, they make a huge contribution to the pathology and development of a wide range of diseases.

The fourth complex removes electrons (four of them) from four molecules of cytochrome and transfers them straight to the molecular oxygen. While this, it moves four protons across the membrane, producing inthis way proton gradient.

In addition, with the help of the prokaryotic cells maximum of 38 ATP molecules can be produced.

As for anaerobic respiration in the muscles, this is a reaction on the processes which take place in the organisms’ cells. Biomechanical energy is converted into adenosine triphosphate, also a well-known ATP. Thre is no need in oxygen and the process is observed in the cytoplasm. every reaction is supported by the glycolysis. The ATP produces two molecules per one molecule of glucose. Reaction is short-term and as result the main function is to produce energy without oxygen using lactic acid fermentation (especially in muscle cells) or alcohol fermentation. Despite the muscles cells, in the process are involved cells yeast, prokaryotes.

For aerobic respiration are used most cells. The NADH is recycled by using the ETC. The main function lies in producing energy from food: sugars, lipids and proteins. This process has a indefinitely sustainability, as a result ATP produces 38 molecules per molecule glucose. To achieve such result few different stages are involved in the process: mainly glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation and Krebs cycle. The reaction is observed as in cytoplasm, so in mitochondria. Nevertheless, this process can happen only if there is oxygen.

Metabolism is important for us, because without it the organism will die. Only metabolism the whole organism helps to function as on unit, supporting and proving all necessary energy for living.



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